ngubbenet.livejournal.com [Sep 28, 2009 at 5:42 PM]
Russian-Soviet war [Newsweek]
Red and white face foreheads: Russian Orthodox Church Abroad has questioned the official view of Russia's history
Last week, in the Cathedral of Christ the Savior was a line - almost as long as the funeral of Patriarch Alexy II and Boris Yeltsin. Almost all were in the hands of the same blue book with akathist (praise) of the Kursk icon of the Mother of God - one of the most respected icons in Orthodoxy. According to legend, in the XIV century it slashed in half the Tatars, and then, when both parts were found, they have made to each other - and they have been accustomed. After the revolution, the white icon was taken abroad, and it became the main sanctuary Russian diaspora. Now - the first time in 89 years - an icon for a few days brought to Russia.
Here he is, a symbol of unification, they say in church: to split revolution Russian world united, like two fused halves icons. Formally, this happened back in May 2007, when the united Russian Orthodox Church Moscow Patriarchate and the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. Vladimir Putin is personally involved in this. "We fully understand and appreciate the force of the impact of pastoral speech, which unites the people of Russia", - he said during the signing of the act of canonical communion between the churches.
Two years passed, and the myth of a unified Russian world disintegrated. In the Orthodox Church began to realize that their understanding of modern Russia at odds with reality. "Rather than stand up for honest and clean position, the power gives another U-turn", - said one of the clergy of ROCOR, who wished to preserve his anonymity. A couple of years ago, he participated in negotiations on reunification of the churches, but now grimly joked: "Not only the Kursk icon arrived, but the Kursk station prepared to receive the Blessed Virgin Mary. He was referring to an inscription in honor of Stalin, who in August was back in the lobby of the metro station Kurskaya.
And in September, it became clear that the ideological gulf between Russia and the Russian diaspora has not disappeared. Zarubezhniki made in defense of Andrei Vlasov - the general who came to the Nazis and is considered in Russia's chief military traitor XX century. "[Vlasov] - a symbol of resistance to godless Bolshevism" - officially declared the Synod of Bishops. There is a big scandal broke. It affected not only the two churches merged, but even the president's administration.
Now the question of free interpretation of the role of Vlasov's committee will examine the anti-falsification of history under the President. The Kremlin created it to fight the ideological foes of sabotage from the Baltic states and Ukraine, as a result received a blow from ROCOR. Sami zarubezhniki nothing unexpected in such developments do not see. "I remember in those days [of association of churches] all harped on the end of the civil war - they talk to Newsweek in the ROCOR. - And then I thought that sooner rejoice: the civil war in the minds of hard to stop. "
Taboos XX CENTURY
The scandal began, it would seem, with a trifle. Summer published a book by the priest Georgy Mitrofanov "The Tragedy of Russia:" forbidden "subject of history of the twentieth century. In it he urged not to stigmatize Vlasov, and see in him a tragic personality and victims of totalitarianism. According to Archpriest George, struggle with Stalin Vlasov atoned for his sin of serving the Soviet regime. Individual opinion of Petersburg archpriest provoked a storm of criticism from the pro-Soviet-minded Orthodox - including on television - and his father George in full force intervened foreign Synod.
"This is a unique event in the modern history of the church - a simple priest sent a letter to the entire Synod - they talk to Newsweek in patriarchy. - Obvious proof that Vlasov for zarubezhnikov - an extremely sensitive topic. Officially object zarubezhnikam in Moscow did not. Representatives of the Moscow Patriarchate even expressed in that spirit that this complex issue should be discussed. But the informal dispute flared up in earnest.
Here again there was a unique chain of command for internal church event. Simple Deacon Vladimir Wasylyk wrote a very angry letter head of the ROCOR Metropolitan Hilarion. This letter is distributed close to the patriarch of the agency "Interfax-Religion." Then came the heavy artillery. Archimandrite Tikhon (Shevkunov) stated "Izvestiya": "If [zarubezhniki] understand our realities, it never would have caused us such pain." The heroes of the war, said Shevkunov - not Vlasov, and General Karbyshev and Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya. Later sources - and patriarchy, and the ROCOR - chorus wonder: with general Karbysheva Reds broke through in the Crimea in 1920 and killed there by thousands of Russian people and the Komsomol Kosmodemyanskaya burned houses of Russian peasants. Moreover, they were both atheists.
Address by Archimandrite greatly hurt zarubezhnikov. "For them it was one of three negotiators, whose Patriarch Alexy singled out as non-Soviet clerics", - said a source in the patriarchate. Another such a priest - a negotiator with zarubezhnikami - was just Archpriest Georgy Mitrofanov. "There is an interesting scientific subject - intercultural communication - sadly ironic priest of the ROCOR. - We are clearly speak different languages. According to him, zarubezhniki partially overcame his dislike for the successor of the Soviet power, and therefore they hurt to meet such an irreconcilable attitude to Vlasov in Russia.
"Here, for example, sergianism (policies of Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky) for the recognition of Soviet power. - Newsweek). For some, it is martyrdom, for others - a betrayal. But we were able to take a balanced point of view, when combined, "- he said. In Russia, balanced assessment of the actions Vlasov - a rarity. One of the exceptions - in the book "History of Russia. The twentieth century, edited by Professor MGIMO Andrei Zubov: "The suffering of the peoples of Russia under the Bolsheviks were so intolerable that we now have no right to judge anyone, recognizing the moral flaws in any choice of destinies in those years."
This position in Russia, few supports. "Attempts to whitewash the Vlasov may be subject to our committee - said the committee member to confront attempts to falsify the history of Konstantin Zatulin. - We can not deny anyone personal views, but attempts to turn Vlasov's hero at the official level will certainly be tolerated. Proposal to study the Vlasov matter submitted to the commission in early September from the department of internal politics of the presidential administration, which responded to the treatment of opponents Archpriest Georgy Mitrofanov.
I Zatulin no doubt: Vlasov - a traitor, and all. "It was surprising naivete of the Synod of the Church Abroad in the fact that they take at face value General Vlasov's attempts to bring under their betrayal of the ideological foundation", - he said. Zatulin not bother, that Vladimir Lenin, too, has sought to promote his country's defeat in the war against the Kaiser's Germany and made a revolution in the German money: "Lenin is politically responsible for contacts with the Germans, but he never served in the Germany army and did not violate his oath, which he never received.
Vlasov matter can become one of the first taken before the Commission. During the four months of its existence it has met only once. Interlocutor Newsweek in the Patriarchate said that Vlasov may prove too tough for fighters from the falsification:
"They will not dare to officially condemn the Synod of ROCOR. Meanwhile, foreign Synod calls himself correct rigging. "Calling it an act of betrayal - a flippant simplification of the events of those days", - said in the address of the Synod. According to the management of the ROCOR, the name of Vlasov abhorrence just "because of deliberate historical falsification".
In 1942, the Soviet general was taken prisoner by the Germans and created the Russian Liberation Army. In the battles on the Eastern Front Vlasov did not really involved, and in 1945 was captured by Soviet soldiers, taken to Moscow and hanged. In the USSR Vlasov became synonymous with treachery, and Vlasov became known as those who cooperated in the war with the Nazis. "For us, zarubezhnikov, Vlasov - as Kolchak or Denikin. His act, that is, decision to fight the Soviets - a continuation of the theme of the Civil War. And in Russia, Vlasov - the phenomenon of the Second World War, the war against Nazism ", - said one of the representatives of the ROCOR.
Archpriest Nikolai Artemov hoped that the ideological conflict will not affect the depth of the church association. Artemov - the son of a microbiologist Alexander Zaitsev, one of the authors of the manifesto of the Vlasov Liberation Committee peoples of Russia. Zaitseva twice sentenced to death. Once the Nazis - for his underground activities in the ranks of the Vlasov Army. On another occasion, had the Soviet government - for treason. In 1945, Zaitsev remained in West Germany and changed the name on Artemov. And in 1990 went to Russia. "No one is alarmed" - recalls his son, one of the most active supporters of the reunification of the two Orthodox churches.
Disputes about Vlasov forgotten and will become just an unpleasant episode in the relations between the ROC and ROCOR. But the new worldview conflicts are unlikely to escape. The problem is, says Professor Zubov from MGIMO that the concept of "Homeland" and "USSR" - synonyms for the majority of citizens of Russia, but not for the Russian diaspora.
"Putin is deliberately confuses the Russian and Soviet. So he freed Russia to Europe, the Soviet Union. This is unacceptable for any of the old emigrant wave"- explains Zubov. According to him, ideological clashes are inevitable, until the communist regime will not be declared criminal. It is clear that the Kremlin is to never go. ROC itself could change the status quo and to clarify its attitude to communism. But in the social concept, important documents, which describes the church's position about communism is not a word.
"In fact, neither the Moscow Patriarchate or the Orthodox Church with the union in no hurry. Patriarch Alexy then knew the mood zarubezhnikov and understood that the political conflict sooner or later will make themselves known, "- said a source in the patriarchate. He said the union has gone only after a process connected to Putin personally. Now the Kremlin will have to choose between the official view of history and preserving the unity of the Russian world.
In preparation of this article participated Artem Vernidub.
Russian-Soviet war (Newsweek)